period of architecture that we call Georgian is very roughly equivalent
to the 18th century. Although the reign of George III extended into the
19th century, and George IV did not die until 1830, the style(s) of
architecture most commonly associated with Georgian England is at its most strongly identifiable in the period 1730-1800.
all those disclaimers established, what characterized Georgian
design? More than any other period of English historic architecture,
Georgian style is linked with the classical period of Greece
and Rome. Classical influence. The Georgian period was highly - at times
almost exclusively - influenced by the classical architecture. An
entire generation of aristocratic youth traveled throughout Europe on
the "Grand Tour", which was supposed to put a polish on their education.
These Grand Tours exposed the most influential class in Britain to the
classical traditions of style and architecture. These young men (only
very occasionally did women undertake a Grand Tour), came home to
Britain fired by an enthusiasm for classical architecture and design.
Georgian style - major themes
Influenced by Greece and Rome
Terraces and Town Houses
Country Houses. During the 18th century wealth was
accumulating in the hands of fewer and fewer people.
Basically, the rich were getting richer, and they put money
into their homes. Wealthy landowners enclosed vast tracts of
land to create huge landscaped parks, and those parks acted
as a setting for grand houses we call "country houses".
These country house estates were dotted with copies of classical
temples and other allegorical architectural elements such as
grottoes, bridges, and that group of oddments we call "follies".
These elements were aligned and joined by sinuous avenues or
subtle openings in carefully planted trees and shrubs. The
houses which dominated these parks carried on the classical
Baroque vs. Classicism. At the beginning of the century, the Baroque
movement produced architecture which employed classical elements
in a willy-nilly free-for-all profusion. The opulent cascades of
ornamental elements of Baroque gave way in the Georgian
period to careful - and in some cases rigid -
adherence to a sense of classical proportion. If Baroque is
"over-the-top", Georgian classicism is understated elegance.
Palladianism. Georgian classicism was most heavily influence by Palladianism,
a philosophy of design based on the writings and work of
Andreas Palladio, an Italian architect of the 16th century who tried
to recreate the style and proportions of the buildings of
What characterizes Palladian architecture? In a nutshell, grace,
understated decorative elements, and use of classical
Orders: a formalized
system of proportions. The major Greek classical
orders were Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian.
Also, a great deal of attention was paid to the alliterative, or
symbolic nature of architectural elements. Thus, a mock
temple of Apollo (the Greek god of War) was not simply a
building, but might symbolize war in the English world. The
relationship of that temple to other architectural elements,
made a statement of the builder's philosophy. Nothing was
"just" a decorative element.
The first popularizer of Palladian style was Inigo Jones, Surveyor-General under James I. Jones was responsible for several early Palladian buildings, notably Queen's House,
Greenwich, and the Banqueting House at Whitehall. Later, the
torch of Palladianism was taken up by Richard Boyle, Lord
Burlington, the foremost patron of the arts during the
Terraces. The type of building which most characterized the
Georgian period was the Town House, often, though not always,
joined end to end to create "terraces".
A Georgian terrace
The 18th century was a time of great urban growth. At the same time,
the density of settlement in towns meant that there was a
need to pack a lot of houses into a small space. This need
gave birth to the terrace, which allowed a whole street to be
given a sense of architectural wholeness, while keeping the
size of houses small. Most terraces were made of brick, with
sloping slate roofs hidden behind stone parapets. In fashionable
Bath, where local stone was plentiful, brick was used less
Walls between houses were built thick to prevent the spread of fire.
These dividing walls carried the weight of the chimney
stacks. Most terraces were four stories high, and the front
door was accessed by a short flight of stairs. The most
important rooms were on the first floor. [North Americans
take note: the "first floor" is not the ground floor, but the
first floor up beyond that].
Windows were almost exclusively sash-windows, made of standardized
panes of glass divided by thin, delicate wooden glazing bars.
The pattern of windowing was the same everywhere; on the
ground floor windows were kept short, for stability of the
house structure. First floor windows were tall and elegantly
expansive, second floor windows shorter, and top floor
windows almost square. Front doors are paneled, with a semi-circular
Terraces took several forms; often laid out in straight lines, but
also in squares around a central garden space, or in crescents
or oval "circuses". These last two curvilinear designs were
often augmented with vistas and avenues in brick or masonry,
punctuated with stands of trees or gardens. Building developers. The widespread use of the terrace plan
was made possible by the growth of speculative building.
Landowners would build rows of terraced houses with an eye to
renting the houses to the upper and newly-wealthy middle
class. Although many of these land developers hired
architects to carry out their plans, some successful
architects were developers themselves, notably the father-son teams
of Woods and Dance, and the Adams
brothers. Many great terraces in Bath are the work of the Woods, while
the Dances were responsible for developing terraces in
Dublin, and the Adams team held sway in London.
Related: Robert Adam Country Houses Inigo Jones
In the 1930s some novelists write a new kind of novel: the Anti-Utopian or Dystopian Novel. Among them we can mention Aldous Huxley with his Brave New World,George Orwell with his 1984 and the Russian Zamyantin with his novel We.
Dystopian Novels are usually set in the future; they warn man to change his attitude to society. A Dystopia is the opposite of a Utopia: while a Utopia is a dream of a better future, a dream of a land of peace and brotherhood, in contrast to the corruption and tyranny of the contemporary political situation, a Dystopia is the dream of a future society which turns into the nightmare of a worse world than the present one. Utopia is a term coined by Thomas More; it may have a double meaning according to the Greek derivation: ou-topos, a Nowhere Land, or eu-topos, a better world.The
early Utopia expressed the mood of self-confidence and hope of post-
medieval men; the society it expressed was not at the end of its cycle
as in the Dystopia, but at its beginning and corresponds to the deepest
longing of man. The Utopian tradition in the field of fiction is quite
old and traces back to Plato’s Republic. After More’s Utopia (1516), a series of novels, which after their model were labelled as Utopian, are written.We may say that every century has got its utopian works. In The New Atlantis (1626) Francis Bacon
describes a society which has the full control of nature. There are
inventions suggesting the future development of airplanes, submarines,
telephones and other fantastic improvements. Gulliver’s Travels (1726) by Jonathan Swift describes in the 4th Book a land ruled in peace by intelligent horses. Erewhon (1872), an anagram of nowhere,
by Samuel Butler deals with a young traveller who discovers a land
which has very different ideals from the ones of English Victorian society.As far as the 20th century Utopia , it can be considered Technological Utopia and it is also called Science Fiction Novel . Among them we can quote The Time Machine (1895) by Herbert George Wells.
It introduces a technological means of travel through time and treats
the theme of confrontation with the alien, of the last man on the earth
after the death of the world.
LIFE: George Orwell was the pen-name (pseudonym) of Eric Arthur Blair. The surname derived from the beautiful river Orwell
in East Anglia. George declared that he had adopted it in 1933 because
he wanted to symbolize a profound shift in his life-style when he became
a literary and political rebel rejecting imperialism and going to live
with the poor and the outcast people of Paris and London.
He was born in Bengal in 1903, the son of
a minor official in the Indian Colonial Administration. He was brought
up in an atmosphere of impoverished snobbery which he described with the words Landless Gentry to refer to people whose pretension was to belong to a higher social status which had little relation to their income.
In 1911 he was sent to a school to
Britain. Since his parents couldn’t pay the fees at a public school,
he was obliged to study hard to win two scholarships available to
intellectually promising boys to two English leading schools. He chose
Eton and stayed there from 1917 to 1921. At Eaton he had among his
teachers Aldous Huxley, who had an enormous influence on him (Huxley was the author of a famous dystopian novel, Brave New World,
a work of futuristic science fiction and an attack against the
scientific utopias of a technological and technocratic society which has
many points of contacts with Orwell’s 1984).
Orwell was not happy at school both
because he was the poorest of the other schoolmates. As a consequence,
he isolated from them seeking contact with the poor. Because of the
unfair punishments and beatings which he was often subjected to Orwell
developed a hatred for brutality, repression and tyranny.
When he left Eaton, Orwell refused to go
on studying at the University and decided to return to India and to
enrol in the imperial Police. He got soon dissatisfied with his jobs
and after five years he resigned and went back to England again. He
lived for some time in Paris, doing many jobs and sleeping in public
dormitories for the homeless or in slums. By that time he was acquainted with radical political theories and embraced anarchism. In 1937 he went to Spain as a reporter of the civil war but later he joined the Republican Brigade
fighting against the Fascists. The anarchist group he belonged to was
attacked by the Communists and Orwell was seriously wounded. In fear of
his life, he was forced to flee from Spain. This episode gave him a life long dread of communism and totalitarianism.
He died of tuberculosis in a London Hospital in January, 1950.
WORKS: Orwell’s best novels are Animal Farm and 1984.They both deal with politics and aim at demonstrating the uselessness of any revolution.
We have to mention some other works which
are important to understand the development of his thought and
formation. The most important among them areDown and out in Paris and LondonandHomage to Catalonia. In the former he reported his experience in Paris and London after leaving the Imperial Police while
in the latter he described his Spanish experience, showing that the
Spanish Republic fighting against one kind of totalitarianism, fell more
and more under the control of another.
FEATURES: To understand Orwell’s works we have to consider his politicalideas.
Orwell’s political formation was influenced by three main factors: his
school years, his decision to resign from the Imperial Police and his
experience in Spain.
At school he began to be aware of the
differences among the social classes; he was the poorest among his
schoolmates and began to identify himself with the working class and to
develop hatred towards any form of authoritarianism. He was against
imperialism and this led him to leave the Imperial Police; he wrote on
the matter: “I gave up my job … mainly
because I would any longer be a servant of Imperialism because I know
something about it from the inside“. Then he went to live with the poor and the outcast and embraced anarchism. After the already mentioned episode in Spain he developed a life long dread of communism and moved closer to socialism.
In Spain his illusion of the unity of the left-wing collapsed because
he discovered that, although the left-wing factions were supposed to be
united in the war against fascism, there was a rivalry between them. In
brief, we may consider Orwell as a social democrat with leftist sympathies.
He was against all sorts of dictatorship both coming from the left and
from the right even if in his main works he stressed the betrayal of the
socialist principles he believed in by Russian Communism.
The role of the Artist : Art
is an instrument to achieve democracy and freedom. The artist’s task is
to aim at the remaking of the society. He has to fuse political purpose
and artistic purpose together(Shelley,Auden).
To make people think about it he chose two literary genres: the negative utopia in 1984 and the political satire in Animal Farm.
Orwell’s message: as Eric Fromm wrote in an issue on 1984 it wanted to be ” an expression of a mood and a warning.The
mood is of near despair about the future of man and the warning is that
unless the course of history changes, men all over the world will lose
their most human qualities and will become soulless automatons“.
IMPORTANCE OF THE LANGUAGE:
Orwell gave great importance to the language because he believed that
the quality of the language suggests the quality of the society that
used it. In one of his essays, Politics and the English Language,
he attacked the way in which the writers used the language: they tended
to be vague and to avoid what was concrete in favour of abstractions.
According to him the language had to be an actual instrument of
information and communication. Things had to be described as they
really were, without being influenced by traditions or conventions
(Joyce) using a simple, clear and direct language. The importance of
the language is stressed out in his novels and it becomes in them, in
negative, a political instrument of control of the truth; controlling
the language, both the Pigs in Animal Farm and The Party in 1984 not only control the citizens’ thought but also destroy them.
THE CONTROL OF THE TRUTH: the description of the nature of truth is an important aspect in Orwell. The basic question which Orwell raises is whether there is such thing as Truth. He thinks that the truth does not exist
or better it may exist in the human mind; but the human mind can be
controlled and guided: they who control men’s mind decide what is true
and what it isn’t according to their needs.In 1984 O’Brian (the torturer) says to Winston(the main character):”I
tell you Winston, that reality is not external. Reality exists in the
human mind, and nowhere else. Not in the individual mind, which can make
mistakes, and in any case soon perishes: only in the mind of the party,
which is collective and immortal. Whatever the party holds to be truth,
is truth. It is impossible to see reality except by looking through the eyes of the Party“. In Animal Farm and in 1984
the recurrent use of slogans helps the ruling class to control the
citizens’ mind. The vocabulary is continually reduced of words because
if there are no words to express an idea there is no idea at all.
THE DOUBLETHINK: this new term was introduced by Orwell in 1984; “it is the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously and accepting both of them as truth”
according to the State’s need. It helps the totalitarian State to
control the thoughts of its citizens: through the manipulation of the
mind the “persona” is no longer saying the opposite of what he thinks, but he really thinks the opposite of what is true; so white is black, slavery is freedom, war is peace, ignorance is strength and two and two is five.As
far as Winston Smith,the main character of 1984, he was able to work at
the Ministry of Truth rewriting history books, and then believing in
the new history which he himself had written.
This dystopian novel is set in Britain 40 years in the future. The original title should have been The Last Man in Europebut
Orwell decided to give his novel a futuristic quality and chose to turn
inside out the last two numbers of the year he had written it, that is
1948, into 1984.
Orwell imagines that in 1984 the world is
divided into three great powers: Oceania, Eastasia and Eurasia; they
are always at war.Society is divided into three classes:members of the
inner party,members of the outer party and the ‘prolets’.Britain is
ruled as a totalitarian state which combines elements belonging to both
fascism and communism. The ruler is known as Big Brother and huge photographs of him dominate every public space with the warning “Big Brother is watching you”
(we can find something like that in every dictatorship, both leftist
and rightist: the cult of personality was typical in Nazism, Fascism,
Communism and is still typical in nowadays dictatorships. Huge posters
of Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, Saddam Hussein and so on dominated their
countries). Big Brother’s eyes seemed to follow the passers-by as they
moved. Even if his face had got traits of both Hitler and Stalin, his
description fitted more to Stalin than to Hitler: “…the face of a man of about 45, with a heavy moustache.” His name, too, suggests it because English newspapers called Stalin Brother Joe and the Russians referred to him as Little Father.Actually nobody meets him and that makes him more threatening: he is the symbol of both power and authoritarianism.
The citizens are always spied on and there is no privacy at home, too.There are no shutters at the windows and the Patrol Police can spy inside through helicopters . There is a telescreen in every house which can’t be switched off and through which the Thought Police
can plug-in at all times of the day. The children are an extension of
the Thought Police; they are educated by the Party to control their
parents and to denounce them if they do some actions or even speak
against the Party. The thought Police is the most feared branch of the
police (= the Gestapo) and had the task to punish the adversaries of the
System. The most important Ministries are The Ministry of Truth and The
Ministry of Love.
THE PROTAGONIST of the novel, Winston Smith, works at the Ministry of Truth and his job is to rewrite history books changing continually the events to fit them with the current policy of the Party:”Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past“.
He is 39, divorced and lives alone. He is not satisfied with the Regime
and violates some important rules such as to keep a secret diary, which
is considered a thought crime, or to make love in secret with Julia,
which is considered disobedience to the Party’s laws. When discovered,
he is brainwashed and tortured and eventually he denounces Julia. The
Party wants to ‘cure’ and redeem him. His crime is
not to hate Big Brother,but to love Julia and to meet her in secret
without the consent of the Ministry of Love.They
make him confess his crimes in a typical Russian show-trial and give
him back the previous job. The result of the treatment is that Winston
becomes a new man; he becomes one of the Masses who thinks that
everything is right, that Big Brother is right and that he has to love
him. As far as his name, it probably derives from a combination between
the name of Churchill, the winner of the 2nd World war, and Smith, which is the most common surname in Britain.
THE CO-PROTAGONIST is Julia.
She works at the Ministry of Love and her job is to write porno books
for the ‘prolets’. The Ministry of love controls procreation; love has
nothing to do with feelings and passion and it is only allowed to plan
the births because the State is always at war and needs more
population, more soldiers. Love as a feeling is prohibited
and considered dangerous for the Party because it creates a world for
the individual outside the Party control. It is allowed to the Prolets
as sexual relationship because sexual privation produces hysteria which
can be turned into aggressiveness against the State. Julia shares
Winston’s same destiny and after being brain-washed she, too, rejects
Winston and denounces him.
One of the most important campaign aims at the abolition of orgasm: “We
shall abolish the orgasm:Our neurologists are at work upon it now……
There will be no love,except the love of Big Brother….. there will be no
distinction between beauty and ugliness ….. no enjoyment of the process
of life.All competing pleasures will be destroyed“. Destroying pleasure there is no need to make love and the energy of the individual is direct to loveBig Brother.
O’BRIAN:He is an important character in the novel.He is a member of the INNER PARTY and the
torturer. Winston and Julia,arrested by the Thought Police,are tortured
both physically and psychologically. The Party is not interested in
destroying its enemies because they would become martyrs, but only to cure and change them: “We
do not destroy the heretic because he resists us: so long as he resists
us we never destroy him. We convert him, we capture his inner mind, we
reshape him. We burn all evil and all illusion out of him; we bring him
over to our side, not in appearance, but genuinely, heart and soul. We
make him one of ourselves before we kill him. […] we make the brain perfect before we blow it out “.O’Brian,then,wants to redeem Winston.To be redeemed, Winston has to reject Julia’s love, to denounce her and to love Big Brother. Winston had written in his diary “freedom is the freedom to say that two and two make four“. O’Brian first submits Winston’s left part of the brain,which
is the seat of reason and logic. He starts from the above statement and
using the electroshock makes him reject the evidence of maths and learn
that if the party say that two and two make five, he has not only to
answer that they are five but even see one more finger. After the
treatment, because of the great pain he feels in his body, when O’Brian
shows him four fingers and asks him how many they are, Winston sees ” a forest of fingers” and shouts ” I don’t know…. four,five,six, in all honesty I don’t know“. But O’Brian knows that the brainwashing is not complete. He knows that the most difficult step is to submit the right side of the brain,which is the seat of feelings and passion.To
make Winston reject Julia and love Big Brother,the physical pain
isn’t enough. He knows that to win a passion he has to oppose it with a
deeper emotion,a nightmare. To this purpose Orwell invents the Room 101.
ROOM 101: It is the place where the torture and the horror are ‘ad persona’,
that is individual. In this room every person finds what he fears more.
Winston finds his own personal nightmare and to stop the nightmare he
is ready to reject and to denounce everything. Winston’s nightmare are
the mice.He is frightened by
them and when he finds them in room 101, to stop the nightmare, he
rejects Julia and denounces her. After room 101 the treatment is
complete, the Party has won and the ‘persona’ is annihilated:”Never
again will you be capable of ordinary human feeling. Everything will be
dead inside you. Never again will you be capable of love, or
friendship, or joy of living, or laughter, or curiosity, or courage, or
integrity. You will be hollow. We shall squeeze you empty and then we
shall fill you with ourselves”.
THE MAIN THEME of the novel is of course a political one:
in a totalitarian dictatorship the individual is destroyed physically,
annihilated and degraded into an asserting automaton. Winston can’t
avoid it and can’t do anything to oppose the Party.
A second important theme is man’s need to communicate
and his inability to do it in a State that controls not only his
actions but also his rationality, his dreams and his language. A third
theme is the monotony of a world in which love is
deprived of feelings and pleasure and Art are controlled by the State.
In such context life becomes meaningless, grey and hopeless.
Animal Farm is a political fable in the form of an allegory.
It may be read at various different levels: a story for children, an
attack against Stalinism, a lament for the fate of revolution and the
hopes contained in them. It was published in 1945 when Stalin was at
the peak of his power. In Animal Farm Orwell describes the transition
from a society organized on the capitalistic basis to a communist
dictatorship where the abolition of the social classes has taken place
and the equality of all men in front of the law and the state is
established. The book began to be shaped in Orwell’s mind soon after he
came back from Spain, where his beliefs in socialist Russia had been shattered.Even
if it implies a general denunciation of any form of totalitarianism
(Orwell used this term to refer to any oppressive ideology, be it Nazism
or Stalinism, the book was clearly meant as an allegory of the Russia
revolution and of its consequences. The allegorical intent on the
Russian Revolution is very evident in some events in the novel which are
clear allusions to parallel historical events in Soviet Russia as, for
instance, the failure of the five -year plan, the flight of Trotsky, the
Moscow show-trial,in which the opponents of the regime were forced to
denounce themselves after brain washing, the non-aggression pact with
Nazi Germany in 1933 which led to partition of Poland and to the Second
World War and so on. When Orwell wanted to publish it, he met some
difficulties to find a publisher because at that time Great Britain was
allied with Russia against Germany.
PLOT: Animal Farm
deals with the revolt of the animals in a farm. They win control of
the farm and expel their human master. The farm is run by the animals
themselves on socialist principles, summoned up in seven commandments which constitutes the principles of their creed: Animalism. The Seven Commandments are written on the barn wall. The original Commandments are:
1. Whatever goes on two legs is an enemy 2. Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 7. All animals are equal.
Very soon the commandments begin to be
altered to fit them according to the Pigs’ needs. When they decide to
sleep in the farmhouse beds the fourth commandment is changed with
the adding of “with sheets“; when they start to drink the words “to excess” are added to the fifth commandments; when some animals are executed after the “trial show” in which they had confessed their ‘supposed‘ crimes the sixth commandment is changed with the addition of the words “without cause“.Among them, the most important is the last one: All the animals are equal.
In spite of the equality, the class of the Pigs gradually takes the
power, betrays the revolution and restores a society based on
exploitation of the working class and on dictatorship.With the passing of time on the barn wall there is no other commandment but the seventh to which someone had added “ but some are more equal than others ” to assert the supremacy of the class of the pigs.
THEME: The main theme of the novel is the uselessness of any revolution by the Masses.
According to Orwell, Every revolution is doomed to fail owing to lack
of unifying values, lack of class consciousness and of faith in the
revolutionary ideas. Further, as he wrote in Homage to Catalonia, there is always a degeneration of the revolution because the new masters are worse than the previous ones.
There are many sub-themes,
too. Among them we can mention the following ones: the struggle against
any form of exploitation, animals exploited by men, workers exploited
by the ruling class, the proletariat exploited by the rich; comradeship
among the exploited; the danger of propaganda and of the cult of
personality; the easy manipulation of the masses; the control of the
language as a political instrument.
THE FINALE: the scene that concludes the novel is the apotheosis of the novel itself and symbolizes the failure of the revolution. There is a big party
in the farm. In the dining room, the Pigs and the hated human enemies
are at the same table, eating and drinking and enjoying themselves. The
pigs, standing and walking on two legs, try to imitate
the humans and wish to set up a cooperative enterprise with them. The
animals, who had been the protagonists of the revolution, are outside
the house.They had rebelled
against their human master and had conquered their freedom. They had
worked hard in the hope to better their condition. Now they are only
passive spectators who peer in from a window. They are astonished
because they can’t distinguish the Pigs from the Humans: ” The
creatures outside looked from pig to man and from man to pig, and from
pig to man again, but already it was impossible to say which was which.” It’s a bitter conclusion that seems to suggest a negative and pessimistic view of the Masses because they can be easily manipulated. This final scene completes the circular structure of the book.The story had started with the animals enslaved and exploited by their human master,Mr Jones,now they are more and more enslaved and exploited by their new masters,the pigs. Now they realise the failure of Animalism
and, above all, they realise that the situation has returned to the
starting point with new masters, the Pigs, who are more powerful and
even worse than Mr Jones. He could only control their actions while the
Pigs, coming from their own social class, knowing their tastes and their
language, control their thoughts, too. The seven commandments have
disappeared. There is only one, the last, which has been changed to
assert the superiority of the class of the Pigs: All the animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.
the leader of the animals. He is endowed with a good eloquence and
delivers the speech which persuades the animal to rebel against man. He
tells them that the animals are exploited and live in misery and slavery
because man gets possession of all that animals produce. The solution
is to get rid of him. In his long speech he uses powerful slogans such
as “All animals are equal”, “All men are enemies”, “All animals are comrades”. In Orwell’s allegory he may represent Lenin, while the animals may represent the masses of workers.
takes Old Major’s power after his death. Very cunning pig, he turns
into a more cruel tyrant than Mr Jones, the human master. He uses nine
ferocious dogs to frighten animals. Those who oppose him are forced to
leave the farm. To control the animals, he alters the laws to his needs
and controls the education of the young. He likes drinking and suggested
to change the 5th commandments adding “to excess”. He stands for Stalin.
SNOWBALL: the leader of the opposition. He stands for Trotsky.
He is a very intelligent pig and tries to spread the rebellion on the
other farms. He plans a military attack against the Windmill to provide
the farm with electricity. He tries to organize the animals into “Animal committees” to challenge Napoleon’s leadership, but he is defeated and forced to leave the farm.
very strong horse endowed with a great physical strength but not
intelligent. He works very hard in the factory and never takes a day off
work. Eventually he has a physical breakdown and is sold by the pigs to
the knackers. He stands for the typical representativeof the masses who can easily be manipulated.
The oldest animal in the farm. He is a donkey. He can read as well as a
pig. He does not believe in the positive outcome of the revolution and
keeps neutral. He seldom talks and never laughs because there is nothing
to laugh at. He may stand for they who were aware of what was happening
in Soviet Russia but did nothing to oppose the Regime.
SQUEALER: A very intelligent porker( only Napoleon and Snowball are called pigs)
and a brilliant talker who “can turn black into white”. He supports
Napoleon and succeeds in convincing the animals that Snowball is Mr
Jones secret agent and that the pigs have to be fed with very good food
because they are brainworkers. Some critics maintain that he stands for
“Pravda”, the Soviet newspaper
MOSES: He is Mr Jones’s raven
and is the only animal who does not work in the farm. He is useful to
the pigs because he can keep the animals quiet telling them that all
animals who work hard,after death, go to Sugarcandy Mountain, a sort of Paradise where Sunday comes seven days a week. In Orwell’s allegory he represents the orthodox church. MR JONES: The cruel human master of the farm CLOVER: one of the two
cart-horses. She takes Orwell’s voice to express both regret at the
failure of revolution and anti-imperialistic feelings.
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Forderung nach schnellerer Abschiebung ausländischer Straftäter:
Nach den sexuellen Übergriffen auf Frauen in der Silvesternacht in Köln
und anderen Städten fordern Politiker aus Union und SPD ein härteres
Vorgehen gegen ausländische Straftäter. Sie müssten schneller
abgeschoben werden können. Der SPD-Vorsitzende und
Bundeswirtschaftsminister Sigmar Gabriel sagte der "Bild"-Zeitung, der
Staat müsse stark und handlungsfähig bleiben. Es gehe jetzt darum, alle
Möglichkeiten des internationalen Rechts auszuloten, um kriminelle
Asylbewerber in ihre Heimat zurückzuschicken, erklärte der Vizekanzler.
Bundesinnenminister Thomas de Maizière sprach sich in der "Rheinischen
Post" aus Düsseldorf für mehr Videoüberwachung auf öffentlichen Plätzen
und harte Strafen aus. Dazu gehöre auch, ausländische Straftäter bei
erheblichen Vergehen auszuweisen, betonte der CDU-Politiker. Seine
Partei fordert in einer Beschlussvorlage für ihre Klausurtagung in
Mainz, die Hürden für Abschiebungen zu senken. Nach Kölner Übergriffen Polizei unter Druck:
Eine Woche nach den Übergriffen eines alkoholisierten Mobs auf Frauen in
Köln ist immer noch unklar, was genau in der Silvesternacht geschah.
Die Kölner Polizeiführung gerät nach neuen Zeugenaussagen auch aus den
eigenen Reihen zunehmend unter Druck. Laut einem Bericht des "Kölner
Stadt-Anzeigers" sollen Verantwortliche der Polizei die Herkunft der
Tatverdächtigen vom Hauptbahnhof absichtlich verheimlicht haben. Der
Polizeiführung sei offenbar schon in der Silvesternacht klar gewesen,
dass es sich bei vielen von rund hundert kontrollierten jungen Männern
um Flüchtlinge aus Syrien, dem Irak und Afghanistan gehandelt habe, die
erst seit kurzem in Deutschland lebten, hieß es in dem Bericht. Der
verantwortliche Dienstgruppenleiter der Polizei nannte die Herkunft der
kontrollierten Männer dem "Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger" zufolge bewusst nicht,
weil ihm dies "politisch heikel" erschienen sei. Slowakei weigert sich Muslime aufzunehmen:
Die Slowakei will keine muslimischen Flüchtlinge aufnehmen. Das kündigte
Regierungschef Robert Fico als Reaktion auf die Übergriffe auf Frauen
in Köln und Hamburg in der Silvesternacht an. Seine Regierung werde
nicht nur weiterhin die Durchsetzung verpflichtender EU-Quoten zur
Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen bekämpfen, sondern auch verhindern, dass in
der Slowakei eine geschlossene muslimische Gemeinschaft überhaupt
entstehen könne. Die Slowaken wollten nicht, dass etwas wie in
Deutschland auch bei ihnen geschehen könne. In Zukunft wolle sich sein
Land auch nicht mehr an humanitärer Hilfe für Flüchtlinge beteiligen,
kündigte Fico an. Schon bisher nahm die Slowakei kaum Flüchtlinge auf.
Im gesamten Jahr 2015 wurden acht Asylanträge genehmigt. Syrien erlaubt Hilfslieferungen für belagerte Stadt Madaja:
Die syrische Regierung hat erstmals seit fast drei Monaten grünes Licht
für Hilfslieferungen in die von ihren Truppen gemeinsam mit der
verbündeten Hisbollah-Miliz belagerten Stadt Madaja nahe Damaskus
gegeben. In der Stadt, die von Aufständischen der Freien Syrischen Armee
(FSA) kontrolliert wird, sind rund 40.000 Menschen eingeschlossen. Laut
UN droht in Madaja vielen Menschen der Hungertod. Es gebe glaubwürdige
Berichte, wie die Fotos und Filme von hungernden und ausgemergelten
Menschen, die im Internet kursierten, belegten. Die Hilfskonvois sollen
in den kommenden Tagen starten. Die letzten Lebensmittellieferungen
waren am 18. Oktober in Madaja angekommen. Südkorea reagiert auf Nordkoreas Atomtest mit Lautsprecher-Propaganda:
Als Reaktion auf den neuen Atomtest Nordkoreas hat Südkorea seine
Propaganda-Beschallung an der Grenze wieder aufgenommen. Entlang der
demilitarisierten Zone tönen aus den Lautsprechertürmen südkoreanische
Popmusik, Nachrichten und Kritik am kommunistischen Regime von
Machthaber Kim Jong Un. Die Beschallung dringt bis zu 24 Kilometer weit
nach Nordkorea hinein. Durch die antikommunistische Propaganda könnten
sich nach Ansicht von Beobachtern die Spannungen zwischen beiden Staaten
deutlich erhöhen. Nordkorea hatte am Mittwoch nach eigenen Angaben
erstmals eine Wasserstoffbombe getestet und damit weltweit Empörung
ausgelöst. Leichter Aufwärtstrend an Chinas Börsen:
Nach den massiven Verlusten und der Aussetzung des Handels am Donnerstag
hat sich der Aktienmarkt in China etwas erholt. Die Börsen in Shanghai
und Shenzhen notierten mit ein bis zwei Prozent im Plus. Zuvor hatte die
Regierung der Volksrepublik einen neuen umstrittenen Schutzmechanismus
zur Unterbrechung des Aktienhandels bei großen Schwankungen wieder
abgeschafft. Auch verringerten sich Sorgen über die Schwäche der
chinesischen Währung, nachdem der Yuan über Nacht zum ersten Mal seit
neun Tagen wieder etwas stärker notierte.